The scientists helped to find the energy bond that shows how the metal is formed

A detailed description of how a metal is formed from an electrolyte has been described by groups of scientists, including Pavel Jungwirth from the state of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Their work got on the suit of the prestigious scientific journal Science.

From the knee benches you can remember that the metal is also characterized by the fact that there are many free electrons and it is so good to lead. But how does such a metal or metals conduct the ps origin? This was described by groups of Vdc of the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University with scientists from the American University of Southern California, PSL University, the Max-Planck Institute in Germany and others. The result of their work was published this week in the journal Science.

Scientists in it described the transition to metal breeding at the molecular level, in particular they showed how accurate from the originally taken electrons the formation of metal conductivity ps.

Imagine a crumb where there are electrons that thaw. We have a krsn, a model system where it behaves like an insulator at the stop, and electrons do not flow there. Let’s take an alkali metal and suddenly connect those electrons and create what makes them conductive. There will be a breeding of metals, described the chemist Pavel Jungwirth from the state of organic chemistry and biochemistry.

The city exploded discovery

According to him, the journey led to the current discovery for several years. Liquid ammonia was used.

The research began with such an edge in the rushing of sodium into the water, which is known in each of the chemistry lessons as an experiment in which the chemist noticed how the explosion looked. The trick we did then was to put liquid ammonia in the city of water when there was no explosion. And the hunter can add more and more alkali metal, the researcher describes.

The researchers used the method of photoelectron spectroscopy. At the synchrotron, you in Berlin, where they have a very strong source of X-ray zen, we can use materials to study electrons in nm, Jungwirth described.

The technique of using ultra-high vacuum has long been considered incompatible with the study of tissue liquids, such as liquid ammonia (spider). The first photoelectrons of a certain liquid ammonia were given only last year to the first Jungwirth darkness and his colleagues from the University of Southern California at the BESSY II synchrotron in Berlin. Successes in micronstik technique.

During the current research, the researchers used the most modern computational procedures for the determination of electronic structures and thus obtained a detailed molecular description of the transition from non-metallic substances to metal.

Together with two doctoral students, we numerically studied how the system develops on a molecular level during extremely short periods of time and how it takes the structure at a given temperature. lo o rozshl vpoty using the ab initio method of molecular dynamics, says Dr. Ondej Marlek from the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University.

Pavel Jungwirth z

Pavel Jungwirth from the state of organic chemistry and biochemistry

The combination of photoelectron spectroscopy and advanced electron structure could subsequently describe and map on the molecules how a metallic solution of lithium, sodium and potassium, i.e. alkali metals, was formed from the original electrolyte in a liquid spider. In essence, it was possible to show in detail the transition from the electrolyte to the metal solution.

Using photoelectron spectroscopy using X-ray synchrotron zen, the researchers first captured a photoelectron signal of about 2 eV corresponding to electrons scattered in liquid ammonia, the scientist describes the results on the state of organic chemistry and biochemistry.


The front page of Science magazine with graphics showing the color transition of a non-conductive spider to a conductive, when it was enriched with alkali metals.

Alkali metals dispersed in liquid ammonia represent model systems of interest for investigating the transition of blue electrolyte with low concentrations of scattering electrons to bronze and gold colored metal solutions (with conductivity comparable to copper crumb) with high concentrations of free electrons. First, this color transition came to the front page of a scientific journal in the form of graphics.

It is interesting that this research arose as a side effect of the main change of the group around Pavel Jungwirth, who is mainly engaged in a reasonable biological process involving salt ions.

Metal water

This is such a real phase. We try to go back to the water in which the alkali metals explode and do a trick so we can prepare the metal water. Thus, water, which will have the property of metal, was added by Jungwirth to the main research site. Hope that the study now opens the door to realizing their best dream.

According to it, metal water should be prepared by mixing it very carefully with alkali metals. The metal water has never been produced, and if it escaped the darkness, it would be the first time such a liquid water was formed by a metal conductive dog. The result would help to better understand how the formation of metal breeding and associated properties such as very high electrical conductivity.