The Hollywood film is behind us, experts in coronavirus mutations

The worst thing happened, especially when the new coronavirus peskoil na lovka, explains Ji ern from the Czech Agricultural University in Prague. It’s up to us not to let the virus escape the scam.

You are following the SARS-CoV-2 virus mutation. For the first time this is important?
There are several reasons for watching the virus mutate. The first is that it is possible to define the cities where it mutates the most, it shows how much it is adapted to its host and so on. For example, if there are more mutations that do not lead to changes in the sequence of viral proteins, because this usually leads to a reduction in the fitness of the virus, it shows that the virus is highly adapted.

Second, the monitoring mutation shows whether and how much we can rely on our detection methods. These are based first on knowledge of the sequence of the virus.

For aunt, it can define viral proteins that are good to target. It must be a member of the cities that are as small as possible. It’s not worth investing billions of dollars in a drug or vaccine that would cling to a protein that the virus can change in a week.

How fast do mutations appear?
Coronaviruses mutate at about the rate of one mutation to three dill. The hunter may have a number of viral infections, and all biological mon mutations will appear two or later. Most of them will be for the mountain virus, they will reduce its ability to bake, but some may be suitable. The question is how, it can be good and bad for us at first.

If a vaccine emerges that is widely used, it will put a lot of pressure on the virus, which will lead to a preference for vaccine-resistant mutations. It would be similar in the case of a massively used drug. These must therefore be designed to target cities where the mutation is both objectionable and non-mutant. In drugs that will be used only in a small number of the most sick patients, the emergence of resistance is perhaps even threatening.

So resistance is the most likely risk? dn hollywood’s pandemic market will not avoid going further, manifestations of the virus worsening the mutation. What is likely in reality?
As I did two: Viruses mutate very quickly. Even in no host does the virus exist as a clone, but rather as a set of many different variants. In English written literature, it refers to quasispecies (literally peloeno it would mean quasi-species, ed. Note). This is a natural property of the RNA virus given the high error rate of the enzyme, which copied the virus’s genomes. If you start to apply some selective pressure to such a mixture, those variants that can do better under this pressure will start to multiply. Evolutionary pressure for the virus to be effective in the human population took place sometime during last year, when there was a jump from most of the reservoir to the hunter.

In the first generations after the jump, the virus probably did not live among humans for a long time, they appeared and saw variants that managed it much better, and these are their descendants circulating around the world today. It is almost true that the virus has survived according to the scene of a Hollywood pandemic film, but we have this stage behind us. The virus will have to deal with you. And it’s up to us to create it so that we can disable it if mono.

Does the personal possibility of a virus mutation come to me as an external threat?
I would not work with the word threat. The fact that mutations have occurred is simply a fact that we will have to deal with. I have two major problems that future mutations can cause. They are resistance to liv and change the protein so that they are not recognized by counterparts. On the other hand, the virus cannot be expected to change in any way and completely change its biological nature.

Do you, like Jaroslav Flegr, think that the virus could mutate into my virulent, ie harmful form?
The primary target of the virus does not kill its host, but multiplies in it so that it can infect as many other hosts as possible. A mutation that would allow the virus to allow its host to lead a normal life would not make it ill and it would meet other hosts. Therefore, in theory, we can expect a weakened virus.

And is such a possibility real in the near future?
Mutation to some slight form can be expected only if some pressure is selected. Quarantine people with symptoms could do so. But I don’t think we would be able to quarantine the world to use them to select small strains of the virus. They are not even designed for it, it is not their duty. Clem quarantine is to prevent the DNA virus from escaping.

Take eknme in 2020, 2021 by vs spe ne?
This is to be estimated, but not biologically. However, it is important to realize that the lives of our people are not just biological rules. We have done many measures to reduce the biological effects of the pandemic. We have introduced quarantines, we have handkerchiefs, the first liva has been approved, we have developed a vaccine, etc. I think that with these small measures we can get the virus under control easier and faster, not if we rely only on its evolution. It will then be important to monitor the effect of these measures, and the most restrictive as soon as possible to replace and replace those with a similar effect.

The rate of SARS-CoV-2 mutations is enormous in terms of organisms, but how is it compared to other viruses? What do you compare to lace?
The lace virus is an extrmn ppad. It is one of the fastest mutating virus ever. In addition, the genome is divided into several segments that can be combined in different ways. Coronaviruses have an unsegmented genome and mutate more slowly. However, even with such a large number of people infected with the virus, we can expect many new mutations.

Did you find an interesting and significant mutation from your point of view, which would be worth the attention of a layman?
Personally, I will look at how similar viruses can jump from the rest of the reservoir to the hunter. That’s why I’m personally most interested in mutations that occurred before or immediately after this jump. For example, a polybasic city between domains S1 and S2 appears. There is also a certain similarity, for example, with otherwise unrelated highly pathogenic strains of chip viruses, and it is obviously a biological trick that allows the virus to cling to it.

For example, what about the changes in the pathogenicity of the virus in culture? I am referring to a study on mutations from European samples, which very simply and more aggressively attacked human beeches in laboratory conditions (it was written in the Czech Republic (originln prce , vbr z eskch zprv he).
The emergence of a mutation that increases the pathogenicity of the virus in cell culture does not mean that this mutation must be dangerous in the real world. There, it can happen that such a mutated virus elicits such a strong immune response in the host that it will be quickly cleared. Or, conversely, such a virus kills its host two, not he manages to infect the other. It is therefore necessary to similarly know the mutations and monitor their representation in the population, only then can we deduce their real danger in terms of pandemic cells.

This is the world’s first coronavirus pandemic.
If, especially in the dark, with the exception of quarantine and the nature of immunity, we are defenseless against the virus. We have a shelter at our fingertips that we can change quickly as needed, we have some antivirals and we know that, and whatever happens, the lace epidemic is a seasonal affair and will go away in the spring. For coronavirus, we do not have a vaccine, but we do not know how to behave in lt. We really don’t have to go much. In other human coronaviruses, with the exception of SARS and MERS (apart from SARS-CoV-2, there are three other causes that cause me to be called respiratory diseases), we have never observed their effects in the human population in direct transmission. SARS was pandemic and overwhelmed by quarantine, MERS became very poor among people and had the potential to start a pandemic, perhaps for now, thank God.

What will be according to vs according to?
In my opinion, there is a fear that the virus will get, and indeed happened, into poorer areas, which will not be able to sell themselves with it. There, it is possible to return to the developed country among the local population and as part of international travel. Non mrou are large outbreaks of the virus in the slums of African cities or favelch of Latin America.

D somehow prevent it?
Unfortunately, the virus is there and there. It turns out that the low number of people in Africa is just the result of a low test rate. Some countries, such as Tdikistn or Turkmenistn, do not test at all and claim that the virus is not present. But good data comes from Brazil, for example, where a lot of people are tested and there are a lot of those infected. I think that as soon as we master development in our country, we should focus on helping developing countries, even though our economy will not be nearly as equal as before pandemics. But let’s face it, it won’t last.