HUNDRED DISCOVERY: The father of the bomb atoms approved the flow to Japan. Then he regretted it

The title was earned by J. Robert Oppenheimer, a scientist in the American Manhattan project, which developed the weapon in the 1940s. Pesto has become an ethical issue for him. The series on the most significant human discoveries was published by Magazn Vkend.

The first experimental bomb blast took place on July 16, 1945, at a pilgrimage in New Mexico. None of the participants in advance could have predicted what would happen (had a boom or the destruction of the planet’s cells?), But the explosion of 20,000 tons of trinitrotoluene and the dazzling light that carried it surprised everyone.

Oppenheimer later recalled: The people were laughing, the people were crying, and the wind was grinding. To him himself, the connoisseur of ancient Indian epics, the words of the Bhagavad-gita flashed through his head: I became Death, the destroyer of the world.

Vdec, ale levik?

The impetus for the creation of the Manhattan Project was at first that Nazi Germany was considering such a weapon, even working on it. Otzka Kdo dv? she took on the fate of form.

The physicist Oppenheimer was involved in a significant theoretical work in several fields at the time he joined the project. He has been thinking about the bomb since 1939, when he learned about the release of a large amount of energy during the nuclear heat of uranium-235. At that time, he immediately began to propose the uranium amount needed to create a bomb, and at times with the question of how to provoke a chain reaction that would release energy.

But that was not the only reason for him in 1942 to bomb the development of atomic bombs. Although it was known that the whole life struggled with depression and was ventilated by conflicts during their studies, it was possible with a clear concept: for such a round it is necessary to connect representatives of various fields into a common laboratory. And his organizing abilities and charisma, with him the people got better, they did it.

He chose the remote nhorn plateau of Los Alamos in New Mexico for a secret lab. The boys and their families used to settle in the bar, the shift with the fact that they will be kept secret and their movement outside the bar will be restricted.

Oppenheimer with colleagues in Nov.

Oppenheimer with colleagues in New Mexico, where his team tested an atomic bomb.

A problem arose at the turn of Manhattan: the Oppenheimers missed leftist leanings and contacts with American communists, including Jean Tatlock’s mistresses and Mary Ellen’s wife. Despite the FBI’s objections, his project leader, General Groves, enforced him, pointing to his indispensable expertise. He passed and inevitably brought the bomb to the finish line. Pesto, the FBI did not launch him on suspicion that the pioneer.

Was it necessary?

In 1945, when the bomb was ready, Nazi Germany apparently fell to portions, not even being able to develop the same weapon. Japan was threatened, still relentlessly pouring in.

The question before the US: is it not time to stop the Japanese day with a definitive new bomb, would it bring losses among the Japanese population? Scientists commented on the father, and it was Oppenheimer who leaned towards using the bomb as an inevitable action.

In August 1945, they landed on Hiroi and Nagasaki. Although Japan capitulated, only the consequences of the bombs were so grim that it also affected Oppenheimer. In a meeting with President Truman, he even exploded emotionally: I feel like there’s blood on my hands.

After leaving Los Alamos, as chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, he advocated global control of nuclear energy, including the confiscation of nuclear weapons. The author of his biography, Priscilla Mc Millan, wrote about it later: No one else has seen the future of nuclear weapons.

He refused to engage in the development of vodka bombs, which were considered high treason. Along with evidence of his past communist contacts and the suspicion that he was involved in atomic pioneers in favor of the USSR, this brought him before the commission of inquiry.

In 1954, he was stripped of security clearance and influential positions, and was rehabilitated by President Kennedy.

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